The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web that serves to enhance information and data through the use of syntax and serialization formats based on the Resource Development Framework (RFD) of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). It affords data sharing, search, reuse and combining of information, creating a platform for a more resourceful and intelligent inter-connectivity of the Internet. Currently Web 3.0, it continually creates data in the form of a web that can be processed by machines. It is currently considered to be the logical progression of Web 2.0 and the precursor to Web 4.0. The term was coined by Tim Berners-Lee, who officially envisioned its development in 2001.
History and Evolution Edit
- 1909: Charles S. Peirce is the first notable contributor to the future of the semantic web; developed ideologies in semiotics, claimed that logical operations could be carried out through electrical circuits.
- 1909-1956: Pierce's work inspires discussions about logical semantic networks.
- 1956: Richard H. Richens invents semantic nets that provided a pivoting language for machine translation.
- 1960: SYNTHEX project furthers the development of semantic nets. Major contributors feature Robert F. Simmons, Sheldon Klein, Karen McConologue, M. Ross Quillian, and Allan M. Collins.
- 1960's: M. Ross Quillian, Allan M. Collins, and Elizabeth F. Loftus form the concept of the Semantic Network Model.
- 1965: Hypertext coined by Ted Nelson.
- 1989: Tim Berners-Lee first implements Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).
- 1989: Berners-Lee creates the first web address: http://info.cern.ch/hypertext/WWW/TheProject.html. This marks the beginning of the creation of Web 1.0.
- 1994: Berners-Lee founds the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) which currently supports many of the standards developed for the semantic web.
- 2001: Berners-Lee first predicts the concept and eventual formation of the semantic web and publishes an article in the Scientific American journal, along with James Hendler and Ora Lassila.
- 2004: Berners-Lee accepts chair of School of Electronics and Computer at the University of Southampton to work on the semantic web.
- 2004: Web 1.0 evolves to Web 2.0.
Evolution of Web 1.0 Edit
Web 1.0 is the first developed stage of the World Wide Web. It comprises of webpages made up of only hyperlinked connections without interactive content. Websites in 1.0 are typically static, good for one-time use. Visitors cannot make contributions to these sites, and they are propriety, meaning that software, although downloadable by the user, cannot be changed. It is useful to model sites based on 1.0 if the webmaster does not want the content to be altered by other users. It is often argued that the time of the transition between web 1.0 and web 2.0 are unclear, although there is a fair distinction of web 2.0 becoming more popular as the Internet progressed between the 1990s and the early 2000s.
Evolution of Web 2.0 Edit
Web 2.0 is the second developed stage, or generation, of the World Wide Web that allows people to share and collaborate information online. What distinguishes the transition from its predecessor, web 1.0, is that it shifts from static hyperlinked pages to an organized, flexible, and dynamic platform that affords users to communicate and share information widely. This is accomplished through the use of a hosting services provider (HSP) which provides the opportunities for users to create websites and make them highly accessible to other users.
The Difference Between Web 2.0 and the Semantic Web Edit
Web 2.0 encompasses the socialization of the web, including the use of social media and sharing of data with others. It is said to be the side of the web more focused on people and how they interact with one another. The most popular standards that support web 2.0 are AJAX, Ruby, XHTML, and SOAP.
The semantic web is said to be the side of the web focused on computer machinery. It is a developing entity that is shifting from the reliance of human operators on computers to carry out tasks to a new era of computer hardware self sufficiency. The idea is that computers should be able to search and combine the information of the web without human touch. The process that is associated with accomplishing this requires the Resource Description Framework (RDF) to translate "raw" data into machine-readable data that is friendly to computer software. New data and metadata are constantly added to create a more intelligent web space. This and the implementation of standards create the groundwork for the semantic web.
The Progression of Web 2.0 to Web 3.0 Edit
The current state of the web, web 2.0, is user-focused and interactive. The web is said to be shifting to an era that utilizes internet use beyond the confines of computers. Reliance on constant information is becoming more evident as internet use widens around the world. The progression of web 2.0 to web 3.0 would involve device-to-device interaction, as opposed to human-computer interaction. Devices in cars would talk to each other and communicate data that would be important to the user, catering to user experience while lessening the interactive component of searching and acquiring data. Not only will this research highlight user interests, but it will also work more efficiently.
The Future of Web 3.0 (Web 4.0) Edit
Web 4.0 Edit
Web 4.0 is the idea that human and technology become one. It features a world in which people are always connected to the web, and data visualization is portrayed in the light of holographic, virtual reality, and 3D technology. Many technologies such as implant chips, RFID tags, and 3D printers are considered to be milestones that mark the beginning of web 4.0. Technology fields, particularly in human-centered design, are committing to research in this area.
Semantic Web Applications, Standards, and Components Edit
Usability during web experience is enhanced in the following ways:
- Servers expose data systems using standards (listed below).
- Machine-understandable information is marked on each document to provide the system with valuable data about human use of webpages.
- Web-based services are used.
- Metadata is organized and supplied to maintain consistency across the web.
Standards of the Semantic Web Edit
References to formats and technologies that make the entirety of the system possible:
- Resource Description Framework (RFD)
- RDF Schema (RDFS)
- Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS)
- Web Ontology Language (OWL)
- Rule Interchange Format (RIF)
- Uniform Resource Identifier
References to the Semantic Web Stack, providing the structure and architecture of the system:
The Pros and Cons of a Personalized Internet Edit
- More specific information available
- Searches are more relevant and personalized
- Fake identities online are harder to create
- Easier to share knowledge and information
- Helps marketing/advertising companies
- Policies about privacy will need to be established
- People who do not interact on the web frequently, or at all are not recognized/do not “exist”
- Easier to find personalized information
- Less anonymity
See Also Edit
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